Nature Based Solutions

Nature-based Solutions are actions to protect, sustainably manage, and restore natural and modified ecosystems that address societal challenges effectively and adaptively, simultaneously benefiting people and nature. They are based on the notion that when ecosystems are healthy and well-managed, they provide essential benefits and services to people, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions, securing safe water resources, making the air safer to breathe, or providing increased food security.

The Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) describes the anthropogenic GHG emissions from two distinct sectors: Agriculture and LULUCF (Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry), which were previously treated separately. AFOLU sector is one of the contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally, producing about one-fourth of global GHG emissions. Developing countries are accountable for the majority of GHG emissions. Asia has the highest share in the global AFOLU emission. The increasing emissions are mainly due to deforestation and agricultural emissions. The contribution of developing countries to AFOLU-related emissions is expected to increase significantly in future due to the projected increase in food production and land conversions.

AFOLU accounted for about 11% of total net emissions in India, 20-30% in Thailand and Vietnam, 50-60% in Bangladesh and Indonesia and 90% in Lao PDR. In terms of absolute emissions, India had the highest emissions from agriculture (355.6 million tCO2e in 2000), while Indonesia had the highest emissions from forestry and land use (821.3 million tCO2e in 2000). Within the agricultural sector, rice cultivation accounted for the largest proportion of agricultural emissions in Cambodia (nearly 70%), Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia (around 50%) and Lao PDR (around 38%). In India, the largest source of agricultural emissions was enteric fermentation (around 60%) while in Bangladesh this was manure management (around 40% of total agricultural emissions).

India has two core national mitigation missions focused on AFOLU, namely the creation of a ‘Green India’ through increasing forest cover to 33% by adding 20 million hectares of forests by 2030 and implementing sustainable agriculture through the promotion of micro irrigation on 40 million hectares of land. Other specific AFOLU-related mitigation actions include improved crop varieties, crop insurance, sustainable forest management, afforestation and reforestation, REDD+ and ecosystem and biodiversity conservation through wetland restoration and agroforestry practices.

Ecociate offers cutting edge nature based-solutions (NBS) mainly in the domain of AFOLU with the focus on regenerative agriculture, agroecology, agro-biodiversity, organic farming, climate resilient, natural farming and sustainable aquaculture through research, consulting and capacity-building services. Through co-creating sustainable ecosystems, Ecociate’s core focus is on promoting sustainable production systems and building appropriate, innovative and inclusive market systems.